85 years ago, on January 30, 1933, the Kaiser general-field marshal, the president of the Weimar Republic, Paul von Hindenburg, appointed the former corporal of the same army, the Führer of the National Socialist German Party Adolf Hitler, the Reich Chancellor of Germany. It was the darkest time of the Nazi dictatorship, one of the most terrible regimes in the history of mankind.
The nature of this terrible regime is still much simplistic for many people, just like the forces that stood behind it. Hitler always remained an independent political figure, with his own ideology. However, some influential forces in the West shared this ideology, many sympathized it. This played the decisive role in the fact that Adolf Hitler could become the Fuhrer of the German Reich, and then conquered all of Europe and planned the world domination.
Hitler and Nazism also partly became the result of the collapse of the monarchical statehood in Europe. In its essence, Nazism was revolutionary and hostile to bourgeois society, as well as communism. However, Hitler’s popular comparison with Stalin is correct only in the sense that they were both totalitarian dictators whose cult of personality in the 30s-40s was the basis of the ideology of both Germany and the USSR. But Stalin was not the founder of Bolshevism, he was one of Lenin’s ancestors.
Hitler also positioned himself as the main organizer of the Nazi revolution. In this regard, he had much more in common with Lenin and Trotsky, although Hitler declared himself to be their mortal enemy. But, just like Lenin, Hitler was an atheist and a socialist. Basically, Hitler did not reject socialist and Marxist ideas.
More Leftist than Rightist
Having come to power, Hitler gradually introduced a socialist economic system in Germany. A four-year plan for the development of the country was introduced, and by 1938 independent private property was virtually eliminated. During the war, for all employees of the Third Reich, labor books were introduced. Entrepreneurs and business executives carried out orders and instructions of the Imperial Ministry of Economics and the commissioner for a four-year plan. If one of them did not comply with the decrees, then he stepped back from running his business. When the largest German industrialist Fritz Thiessen became too critical of the Nazi order and emigrated to Switzerland, his enterprise was immediately nationalized. By the beginning of the Second World War, the Nazis liquidated and closed more than one million enterprises, primarily small and medium-sized businesses.
The Nazis introduced a red flag with a swastika, celebrated May Day, addressed each other “Kamerad” (comrade).
On the one hand, the political platform of the Nazi party was quite socialist. Here are its main points: all citizens have not only the right, but also the duty to participate in elections; every citizen of Germany must work for the common good; illegal profits are confiscated; nationalization of all large enterprises; Workers and employees participate in the profits of large-scale industries; the pension should be decent; the state support of motherhood and the encouragement of youth in development.
However, in the laws of Hitler there were people who had no political and social rights: Jews and other “racially defective” “non-citizens”. Paragraphs 4 and 5 of the Program of the Nazi Party were as follows: “Citizenship should be granted on racial grounds.” Jews will not be citizens of Germany, all non-Germans can only be guests. ”
So, the widespread notion of National Socialism as an extreme right political movement is not true: it was essentially leftist and socialist, being both racist and xenophobic.
Hitler and Monarchs
Nazis, tolerant of the Hohenzollern Protestant dynasty, persecuted representatives of Catholic monarchal clans in every possible way. Thus, the Gestapo arrested and thrown into concentration camps the Princess Mafalda of Savoy, the wife of Prince Philip of Hesse-Rumpenheim, who did not recognize the Nazi regime. In 1943, she was deceived in Rome on the territory of the German embassy and, after a series of interrogations, was taken to the concentration camp Buchenwald. Mafalda’s husband, Philippe of Hesse, was also arrested in 1943 and placed in the concentration camp of Dachau.
The entire Bavarian royal house of Wittelsbach, to which Prince Albrecht of Bavaria also belonged, opposed the Nazi regime and refused to join the Nazi party. In October 1944 Albert and his wife Princess Maria together with the children were arrested and sent to the concentration camp of Sachsenhausen in Oranienburg. In April 1945, the family was moved to the concentration camp of Dachau, where it was later liberated by the American army.
Prince Francis Xavier of Bourbon-Parma was arrested by the Gestapo in 1944. Prince was the head of the Parma Bourbons and titular Duke of Parma and Pianchentsi. In 1945 he was released by the American army.
In 1943, the children of the heir to the Austrian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his morganatic wife, the brightest duchess Sophia Hohenberg, were arrested and sent to Dachau – Brothers Maximilian and Ernst, who supported Austria’s independence and stood against the Anschluss and the Reich. The brothers staunchly demolished all the humiliations of imprisonment and treated comradely with other prisoners. Thanks to his wife’s petitions before Hermann Goering, Maximilian was released after six months of imprisonment. Ernst was transferred to the concentration camp Buchenwald. He had been in concentration camps for a total of more than five years.
Hitler and Religion
The anti-Christian essence of Nazism was not at first publicized. Hitler realized that it was impossible to manifest it in Christian Germany. Therefore, in many cities that Hitler attended during the election campaign, he was met with a Church bell ringing, and his passionate speeches ended with a devout “Amen!”. But in reality, Hitler and the Nazis really hated Christianity.
Reichsleiter M. Bormann stated: “National-socialist and Christian ideas are incompatible … If therefore in the future our youth would know nothing about Christianity, it will disappear.” Bormann also expressed his confidence that the swastika must replace the cross everywhere.
The leaders of the Third Reich were very attracted by the experience of anti-church persecutions in the USSR. Hitler went much further, starting to create his religious teachings. It was based on the teachings of blood and race and a frank break with the moral principles of Christianity. In this religion the Old Testament was rejected as a religious book. The Apostle Paul was declared a “falsifier of the Gospel,” and the existing Churches were called “the product of the Judeo-Syrian aspirations of the apostles.” Together with the Old Testament roots of Christianity, all the New Testament dogma, the “magic” of the sacraments and the hierarchy were abolished, the Lord Jesus Christ was regarded as one of the spiritual leaders, along with those that preceded him in other religions.
occultism with satanic features
The basis of the Nazi Reich was occultism with satanic features. It was raised by the leaders of the Third Reich to an unprecedented height. Among the high-ranking members of the party, there were many adherents of occult beliefs and rituals. In 1934, in the medieval castle of Wevelsburg Nazis housed the Archaeological Museum, the occult library, the Institute of Ancient History and the Nordic Academy of SS. In the North Tower, was created the “sanctuary” of the Nazi “new religion”, which was a symbiosis of ancient German paganism, pseudo-Christianity, and occultism. V. Schellenberg recalled: “Vevelsburg was a kind of SS monastery, where once a year the general of the order held a meeting of the secret consistory, where everyone who belonged to the highest leadership should exercise their spirit in the art of concentration.”